Access to the EDGE/EBT system is limited to authorized staff. Designated EBT staff will be responsible for issuing/replacing EBT cards and allowing the primary person/Authorized Representative to select/change a Personal Identification Number (PIN). On the EDGE/EBT terminal, designated staff will authorize CalFresh benefits, update or change information on primary person/AR, cancel/status the EBT card and/or reset the PIN. In addition, clerical staff will be responsible for ensuring that an EBT booklet is included in all CalFresh and CalWORKs application packets (See 63-403.2 A. Below)
Client Training Materials
EBT Client Booklet
The California Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) Card PUB 388 booklet, will be included in all CalFresh and CalWORKs application packets. The booklet is available in 9 languages, Armenian, Cambodian, Chinese, Farsi, Hmong, Lao, Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese. It is easy to understand and covers basic skills, tasks and information critical for a client to be able to access benefits and use the EBT card. The booklet includes illustrations to make the concepts easier to understand.
Note: If additional assistance/training is needed by the client, he/she will be referred to ACCESS, or the Customer Service Desk (1-888-997-9222), or the California Electronic Benefit Transfer Project website (http://www.ebtproject.ca.gov/).
Open Pending CalFresh /
All CalFresh applicants will be issued an EBT card (if one has not already been issued) at the end of their intake appointment. However, before an EBT card can be issued, some basic case/person information needs to be relayed to the EDGE/EBT system through CDS. To assist with this process, form 16-2A
“Reception Referral - All Aids”, has been revised. The form indicates, “If applying for CalFresh, name the adult applicant who is to be issued the EBT card”.
When open pending all CalFresh and CalWORKs applications (whether or not CalFresh are requested at the time of application), staff will enter a “P” in the P field on the APPL screen associated with the CDS person number. This “P” indicator will instruct CDS to relay person specific information to the EDGE/EBT system. If this has been done, the worker will see this information on the IMMN screen when processing the intake. The worker will evaluate whether or not to issue a card. The "P" indicator must be entered, even if the primary person indicates he/she already has an EBT card. If the client leaves this question blank on the 16-2A or names someone for whom aid is not requested, staff with identify the case payee as the primary person.
Note: Authorized Representatives will be identified on CDS by the worker during the intake process.
IMMN and EBT Card Delivery/PIN Staff
The issuance of an EBT card and/or the authorization of CalFresh benefits must be completed by an IMMN clerk. The same person who issued the card and/or authorized the benefits cannot handle the actual delivery of the EBT card to the client.
The IMMN clerk will receive the 16-17 DSS for processing. If a card is needed, the IMMN clerk will pull an EBT card from the secured supply for activation and embossing. The IMMN clerk will log the card out by entering the date, case number, client name and check digit (last number on the card) and his/her initials next to the appropriate card number on the EBT Card Log (Appendix H). Fiscal provides the log along with the EBT card stock. After the 16-17 DSS is processed and the card embossed, the card and 16-17 DSS can be handed to the Delivery/PIN Clerk. After photo the client provides photo identification and documented on the 16-17 DSS, the client will sing the 16-17 DSS indicating that a card was received. The clerk will pass the EBT card through the card swipe and allow the client to select a PIN. After the PIN is selected a POS receipt will be requested. If no expedited CalFresh benefits were authorized, the card will be handed to the client. The client will be instructed to sing the back of the card immediately. (See 63-403.8 for additional instructions when expedited CalFresh benefits are authorized).
EBT Card/PIN Issuance and Replacement
The worker will instruct immediate need staff to issue/replace an EBT card/PIN through the IMMN screen. The IMMN screen will produce a 16-17 DSS indicating the action needed. In addition to indicating expedited benefits, the revised 16-17 DSS can indicate the need to:
· Add/Change/Delete information on a primary person/Authorized Representative (AR) on the EDGE/EBT terminal.
· Issue an initial/replacement EBT card for the primary person, AR or both.
· Reset PIN number for primary, AR or both
· Add/authorize CalFresh benefits on the EDGE/EBT system.
The 16-17 DSS has been revised to include a signature line for the primary person and AR, and space for the delivery clerk to indicate the type of ID they viewed before giving the client the card. The client will be requested to show valid photo identification and sign the 16-17 DSS. If the primary person does not have valid photo identification, the worker must confirm the client’s identify and notate on the 16-17 DSS in area marked "other”, that identity was confirmed and how along with his/her worker number and initials. An AR
must show valid photo identification before signing the 16-17 DSS and receiving the card. The primary person/AR must go through the PIN selection process for the initial card or balance inquiry for a replacement card, even if no CalFresh benefits are being authorized on the EDGE/EBT terminal. (When issuing a replacement card, EDGE/EBT system will automatically link the new card to the previous PIN). This is necessary to ensure that the client remembers his/her PIN and does not have to make a return trip to the office.
Card/PIN issuance and replacement will be done on an appointment basis. The client must make an appointment through their worker. After the client/AR has arrived, the worker will make the appropriate request to the immediate need staff through the IMMN screen/16-17 process. If the client leaves the office before picking up his/her card, the card will be held until the end of the day then canceled. The process for communicating EBT appointments between the Eligibility Technicians and immediate need staff is at the discretion of the District Manager.
Before changing the primary person/AR on the EDGE/EBT terminal, the EBT card associated with the previously identified primary person/AR must be statused. The name embossed on the EBT card must be the name identified on the EDGE/EBT system. A new card can be issued the same day the client’s name is being changed on BDLM only if the request is made on a 16-17 DSS via the IEBT screen. Manual 16-17 DSS forms are not to be accepted for this purpose.
NOTE: Under no circumstances will the Immediate Need Clerk emboss a card under a name not on the EDGE/EBT system. First or last names that have been shortened (truncated) due to CDS or EDGE system field limitation would be the only exception.
Mailing EBT Cards to Homebound Recipients
In situations where the homebound recipient does not have an AR, their EBT card can be mailed to them. These recipients will use the Automated Response Unit (see 63-402.8 for additional information) to select their PIN. The worker will complete a manual 16-17 DSS form indicating where the EBT card is to be mailed, obtain approval from a supervisor (the supervisor must indicate his/her approval and sign the 16-17 DSS form) and forward to the Immediate Need Clerk for processing. The clerk will generate a card and mail to the appropriate address.
EBT Card Cancellation/
The worker will request the cancellation/statusing of an EBT card through the IMMN screen/16-17 DSS. An EBT card can be deactivated/statused as lost, stolen, damaged or canceled at the county’s request. Based on the 16-17 DSS generated from the IMMN screen, immediate need staff will take the appropriate action to status the EBT card on the EDGE/EBT terminal.
Issuing Expedited CalFresh Benefits
The 16-17 DSS generated from the IMMN screen will indicate the aid type and the benefit amount with a system generated authorization number. The CDS generated authorization number is a six-(6) digit alphanumeric number beginning with an E (i.e., E12345). This number will be displayed on the 16-17 DSS. The Immediate Need Clerk will enter the authorized amount and authorization number on the EDGE/EBT system. The EDGE/EBT terminal has a $500 maximum benefit limit per transaction. This limit is being set to assist in reducing potential $ errors. The worker can authorize additional benefits via an additional entry/line on the IMMN screen or via the CDS Batch process.
When expedited CalFresh benefits are authorized, the Delivery/PIN clerk will review the EBT receipt against the 16-17 DSS to ensure that the correct amount of CalFresh benefits were authorized before handing the card to the client. If the client already has an EBT card, the Delivery/PIN clerk will request the card from the client, swipe the card through the PIN selection equipment, have the client enter his/her PIN and do a balance inquiry. If an error in the benefit amount is discovered, the clerk will return the EBT card and POS receipt (both copies) to their supervisor. The client is not to be informed of the error in the benefit amount (see 63- 403.9 below for additional instructions). If the dollar amounts match, the clerk will staple both copies of the POS receipt to the 16-17 DSS and process as usual. The EBT card will be handed to the client. If the client is receiving a new EBT card, he/she will be instructed to immediately sign the back of the card.
If the client already has an EBT card but does not have the card with him/her, the supervisor will confirm the CalFresh ES amount authorized by requesting an EDGE/EBT screen print. This screen print will be attached to the 16-17 DSS for documentation.
Note: The POS receipt will always show the total account balance. Therefore, when the POS balance is higher than what was authorized on the 16-17 DSS, the Supervising/Senior Clerk must review the EDGE/EBT Benefit List (BNL) screen. If the 16-17 DSS was processed correctly, the BNL will show the
16-17-authorization number, amount and date available/authorized. This screen will also show previously authorized benefits that are still available to the client. The supervisor will request a screen print of the EDGE/EBT BNL screen to confirm that the correct amount of benefits was issued. The screen print will be attached to the 16-17 DSS for documentation.
Underpayment Authorized by the IMMN Clerk in Error
When an IMMN overpayment/underpayment of CalFresh benefits has been authorized on the EBT Administrative Terminal in error, the procedures outline in the reconciliation process (Item .10 below) will be followed.
Note: The Delivery/PIN Clerk is to review the 16-17 DSS against the EBT POS/PIN receipt to identify this type of error and avoid an overpayment.
EBT Card Issuance and Benefit Authorization Reconciliation Process
On a daily basis, a Supervising/Senior Clerk (or his/her back-up) that does NOT have input access (view only access is permitted) on the EDGE/EBT system will reconcile all EBT cards issued and benefits authorized from the previous day. The Supervisor/Senior Clerk will compare all 16-17s that requested card activity or benefit authorization the previous day with the EBT Card Status Report (EBTDS210-1) and the EBT Admin Activity Report (EBTDS201-1). These EBT reports (Appendix I) will be printed in districts daily. The Supervising/Senior Clerk will ensure that the amount identified on the Admin Activity Report matches those authorized on the 16-17 DSS and that the information on the Card Status Report matches what was requested on the 16-17 DSS. If there are no discrepancies, the Supervising/Senior Clerk will note on both reports “No Discrepancies” along with their initials and the date. The 16-17s will always be maintained with the reports in a secured area.
· Discrepancy in Authorized Amount
If the 16-17 DSS authorized a higher issuance amount than the Admin Activity Report, an underpayment has occurred. This will be brought to the attention of the Automation Coordinator who will obtain a Manual Authorization (MA) number from an Automation Program Assistant.
The worker will need to submit a manual 16-17 DSS using the MA number to authorize the additional benefits be added to the EDGE/EBT system. The reconciling clerk will hold the report until the manual 16-17 DSS is processed. The clerk will notate the correction and initial.
If the 16-17 DSS authorized a lower issuance amount than the Admin Activity Report, an overpayment has occurred. The Supervising/Senior clerk will immediately bring this to the attention of the Eligibility Supervisor (ES). The ES will determine if the overpayment can be corrected (based on CalFresh regulations) by removing the benefits from the EBT system (Repayment Process). If the overpayment can be recouped through the EBT repayment process, the ES will complete the bottom section of the 16-17 DSS approving the EBT Repayment process. This repayment process must be completed immediately. If the total amount of the overpayment cannot be recouped through the repayment process, the worker will have to process an overpayment. The reconciling clerk will hold the report until the repayment process is completed or an overpayment processed. The clerk will notate the correction and initial.
Note: This reinforces the importance of the Delivery/PIN clerk reviewing the 16-17 DSS against the POS/PIN receipt to identify this type of error and avoid an overpayment or underpayment.
· Discrepancy in Card Status
If the Card Status Report and 16-17 DSS indicate that the card was deactivated in error, the Supervising/Senior Clerk will inform the worker. The worker will have to contact the client to come back into the office to obtain another card. Once a card has been statused to something other than active, the card cannot be reactivated. A new card must be issued.
If the report indicates that the card was not statused as requested on the 16-17 DSS, the Supervising/Senior Clerk will walk the 16-17 DSS to an IMMN clerk and have the card statused correctly. This activity will be noted on the report along with the date and initials of the Supervisor/Senior Clerk.
Returned EBT Cards
When a client returns an EBT card, the receptionist will complete receipt form 16-21 DSS. The receptionist will check the “other” box and write in “EBT card returned” then process the 16-21 DSS as usual. The receptionist will then cut the card in half just above the card number and forward to the
The IMMN clerk will check the card status. If the card is still active, the IMMN clerk will deactivate the card using the appropriate code (i.e., “Damaged Card” – A5). The IMMN clerk will enter the date, EBT card number, name, case number, status code and his/her initials on the Returned EBT cards - Statused Log (Appendix G). After the card has been statused and logged, it can be cut several more time and then placed in the trash. A Supervising/Senior Clerk will maintain all logs for three years.
The Returned EBT Card - Statused Log is not available from Offices Services. Staff will copy Appendix G when needed.
Ordering and Auditing EBT Card Stock
· Ordering EBT Card Stock
Districts will order EBT cards through the Fiscal Division in the same manner as warrant stock. The appropriate district staff will call Fiscal at S48-2927 to request a supply. Form 08-30 DSS Request and Receipt for Fiscal Services will be complete by Fiscal.
Fiscal will place each set of 25 cards in a sealed manila envelope with the EBT Card Log (Appendix H) inside. The district courier will pick up the requested card stock from Fiscal. Districts are to use the lowest set of numbered cards first. These cards are to be treated with the same security procedures as warrants. Only one envelope/set of 25 cards will be removed from the vault/secured location at any one time for daily issuance. However, these cards must still be maintained in a locked drawer/file cabinet. After the current log is complete, the next envelope of 25 cards can be removed from the vault/secured location for issuance.
· Completing the EBT Card Log
After the EBT card has been pulled from the secured supply, the IMMN Clerk will enter the date, client name, check digit (last number on the card) and his/her initials next to the appropriate card number of the EBT Card Log. After the card is logged out, activated and embossed it can be delivered to the client or authorized representative. Cards that are incorrectly processed/embossed and not given to the client, must be deactivated. The IMMN Clerk will enter the date, a “yes” in the column marked “Deactivated Card #”, the check digit and his/her initials on the log. Completed logs will be forwarded to Fiscal on the last working day of the month along with any cards that were deactivated (not issued to the client). A copy of each log will be maintained in a folder in the Supervising/Senior Clerk’s office.
· Daily Audit
On a daily basis, a Supervising/Senior Clerk ( or his/her backup) that does not have input access (view-only access is permitted) to the EDGE/EBT system, will complete the EBT Card Stock Inventory Log (Appendix J). This monthly log tracks the date and number of cards received from Fiscal, the number of cards issued on a particular day and the balance on hand for each day. At the end of each workday, the clerk will make the appropriate entries and enter his/her initials in the last column. The number of cards received from Fiscal will be on the 08-30 DSS Request and Receipt for Fiscal Supplies form. The number of cards issued daily can be identified from the EBT Card Log(s) completed by IMMN staff when a card is issued. The balance on hand will be the difference in the number received from the number of cards issued. At the end of the month, the columns will be totaled at the bottom and forwarded to Fiscal at mail stop W430. A copy will be maintained in a logbook in the Supervising/Senior Clerk’s office for three years.
Note: The EBT Card Stock Inventory Log is not available from Office Services. Staff will copy Appendix J when copies are needed.
· Monthly Audit
On a monthly basis, the Supervising/Senior Clerk will complete an EBT Card Stock Report for the Month Ending (Appendix K). The clerk will identify, (A) the number of cards/balance from the previous months report, (B) the number of EBT cards received from Fiscal that month, (C) the number of EBT cards issued that month, (D) the EBT card balance (A + B - C), (E) next months beginning balance, and the difference (D - E), if any, along with a reason for the difference. The Supervising/Senior Clerk will sign and date the report and forward to Fiscal (W430) by the fifth day of the following month. A copy of the report will be maintained in a logbook in the Supervising/Senior Clerk’s office.
Note: The EBT Card Stock Report for the Month Ending is not available from Office Services. Staff will copy Appendix K when copies are needed.
POS/PIN Selection Instructions
In order to authorize clerks to do POS/ PIN selections for applicants and recipients, supervisor needs to be designated. The designation of a lead supervisor is left up to the District Manager/Assistant District
Manager. There can be up to five (5) supervisors assigned per district and up to 15 PIN select clerks. All IDs, whether supervisor or clerical are two digits. The supervisors IDs are 01-05 and the clerical IDs are
06-20. The supervisor IDs, clerical IDs, and passwords are all done on the PIN terminal. A booklet titled State PIN Select Terminal Manual was included with the PIN equipment.
· Supervisor Transactions
One supervisor is to be designated for the “master” ID. The master ID
has control over assigning other supervisors, IDs 01-05 and/or clerical IDs.
- Add or remove clerical IDs; and
- Change a clerical password.
To add a supervisor ID, the lead supervisor logs on the terminal with the “master” ID and identifies the supervisor ID and his/her password.
Note: Unlike most of the county’s systems, the password is assigned for the PIN select functions rather than selected by the user. Either the lead supervisor or an assigned supervisor can add the clerical IDs and their passwords.
To sign on to a terminal:
· Terminal display should read “CLOSED”;
· Enter 1 at this display;
· Press FUNC/ENTER at “SIGNON” display;
· Enter your ID number at display and press FUNC/ENTER;
· Enter your password at display and press FUNC/ENTER; and
· DATE TIME” is displayed and a receipt is printed.
Note: if the wrong ID or password is used, “SIGNON DENIED” will be displayed and a denied receipt will print. Restart.
To add/change an ID and/or password:
· Enter 9 at “DATE TIME” display;
· Enter 7 at “OTHER SELECTIONS SELECT FUNCTIONS” display;
· Press FUNC/ENTER at “CHANGE PWSD” display;
· Enter your ID at “SUPERVISOR ID” and press FUNC/ENTER;
· Enter your password at “ENTER SUPER PW” display and press FUNC/ENTER;
· Enter the new/existing ID (if changing password only) at the “ENTER ID NUMBER” display and press FUNC/ENTER; and
· Enter the new password (four digits but do not use four zeroes) at the “ENTER PASSWORD” display and press FUNC/ENTER. “APPROVED” should be displayed and then “SELECT FUNCTION” should be displayed. At this point either a 9 can be used for another function or 7 can be used to add another ID and password.
To remove an ID:
· Enter 9 at “DATE TIME” display;
· Press FUNC/ENTER at CHANGE PWSD display;
· Enter your ID at “SUPERVISOR ID” and press FUNC/ENTER;
· Enter your password at “ENTER SUPER PW” display and press FUNC/ENTER;
· Enter the ID to be deleted at the “ENTER ID NUMBER” display; and
· Enter 0000 (four zeroes) at the “ENTER PASSWORD” display and press FUNC/ENTER. “APPROVED” should be displayed. You can enter 9 to return to “DATE TIME” or enter 7 to choose another selection.
To sign off the terminal:
· Enter 1 at “OTHER SELECTIONS-SELECT FUNCTIONS” display; and
· Press FUNC/ENTER at the “SIGNOFF” display. A terminal signoff receipt should print.
In addition to adding/changing IDs and passwords, the lead supervisor needs to maintain a list of the staff assigned for the supervisor and PIN selection staff. This list should list the name of the person assigned the ID, the date the ID was assigned, the date the person was deleted from the ID, and the person who took the action to add/delete the ID/password. If the ID is reissued to another person, the list should act as a historical record. Therefore, when an ID is reissued, it should be listed again, along with the person’s name, date of issuance, and person assigning the ID. There is no mandated list, but an example of a possible list is attached as Appendix L.
Although assigned, the passwords should not be written down. As an internal security measure, another password is to be assigned when a clerk forgets his/her password rather than keep a list of assigned passwords.
· Clerical Staff - PIN Selection Transactions
Assigned clerical staff (and supervisors, if needed) will assist the recipient in selecting his/her PIN. Use the same sign on 1) and signoff 4) procedures listed above for Supervisors.
To select a PIN:
· Enter 5 at “DATE TIME”;
· Press FUNC/ENTER at “PIN SELECT” display;
· Slide the individual’s card through the card reader slot at “SLIDE/ENTER CARD”;
· Ask the individual to enter his/her four digit PIN on the PIN pad and to press ENTER at the “ENTER CUST PIN”; and
· Have the individual enter the same four digit PIN for verification and to press ENTER at the “REENTER PIN” display. “PROCESSING” should display (see section 6 in the booklet for “Processing Displays”).
If the transaction is approved, “APPROVED” will be displayed. A receipt will be printed. Proceed to validate a selected PIN section below to verify the card and PIN work.
If the transaction is not approved, “DENIED” will be displayed. If you get this transaction, call the staff Help Desk number (1-800-997-9222) and follow instructions.
To validate a selected PIN
· Enter 2 at “DATE TIME” display;
· Press FUNC/ENTER at “BALANCE INQUIRY” display;
· Slide the individual’s card through the card reader slot at “SLIDE/ENTER CARD” display; and
· Ask the individual to enter his/her PIN on the PIN pad and press ENTER at the “ENTER CUST PIN” display. “PROCESSING” should be displayed.
If approved, “APPROVED” should be displayed and a receipt should be printed. Both the card and the PIN are now active. Return the card to the individual and attach both copies of the receipt to the 16-17 DSS form.
If “DENIED” is displayed, press CLEAR to stop the beeping.
· If benefits have not yet been approved, the receipt will show “S-NO FUNDS AVAILABLE”.
· If the PIN select was not successfully completed, the receipt will show “CB-PIN NOT SELECTED”. Restart the process until a PIN is selected.
To reprint a receipt (paper jam or partial print):
· Enter 7 at “DATE TIME” display;
· Enter # at “LAST DISPLAY ---“; and
· Press FUNC/ENTER at “--- LAST RECEIPT”. A second receipt will be printed and will note “DUPLICATE RECEIPT”.
Contingency Plan for System Down Time
When the mainframe cannot be accessed through the EBT terminal, Immediate Need Staff can use a dumb terminal to issue/replace cards/PINs and authorize benefits. If the dumb terminals are down (mainframe is
not down) and CalFresh Expedited Services have to be issued, the 16-17 DSS requesting authorization of EBT benefits and /or card issuance can be processed by another district with DM/ADM approval. The procedures are as follows:
· Upon receipt by clerical of the 16-17 DSS, clerical will add the card number to be issued (if needed and a card can be embossed) on the 16-17 DSS and note the card/benefits add needs to be done by another district.
Note: If a card cannot be embossed, the client will have to pick up the card at the other district.
· The 16-17 DSS will be given to the DM/ADM for approval of the other district to add the card and/or benefit information to the EDGE/EBT system.
Note: The Automation Coordinator should contact the other district to confirm that they have access to the EDGE/EBT system prior to sending the 16-17 DSS.
· The DM/ADM will authorize the card/benefit add to be sent to the other district.
· The 16-17 DSS will be faxed to the other district and given to the receiving district DM/ADM for approval.
· Upon DM/ADM approval, the benefits and/or card information will be added to the EDGE/EBT system.
· Both districts will keep the 16-17 DSS. The requesting district will log the card issuance on the card issuance log and annotate “issued by (district name) for audit trail purposes. The receiving district will enter the card number on the bottom of the card issuance log they are currently working with and annotate “issued for (district name)” for audit trail purposes.
EBT cards can only be done on the EBT PC/Administrative Terminal. However,
the LAN does not have to be up for embossing cards. The “Shortcut to
EDGE/EBT Administrative Terminal and Screen Printer
Equipment problems with the EDGE/EBT terminal (PC) or printer are to be reported to the Information Services Division Help Desk (S48) 338-2727.
POS Equipment (PIN Pad, Terminal & Receipt Printer)
Districts were provided with an EBT Merchants POS Procedures Manual. The manual provides information on the POS equipment, transactions, maintenance and troubleshooting. Staff will refer to this manual prior to calling for assistance. Equipment problems with the PIN pad, POS terminal (card swipe device) or receipt printer that cannot be resolved after reviewing the manual are to be reported to the Deluxe Merchant Help Desk at 1-800-831-5235 for assistance or repair.
Data Card Embosser
Districts were provided with a Data Card 150i Embosser Manual. The manual provides information on loading/unloading cards, replacing the foil roll, identifying error codes and troubleshooting tips. Staff will refer to this manual prior to calling for assistance. Equipment problems with the card embosser will be reported to 1-800-328-3996.
Authorized staff can access the EDGE/EBT system through the mainframe identifying the session - “\EBT”. This session will not be displayed on the mainframe menu. Instructions on how to use the EDGE/EBT system/terminal, card embosser and PIN pad equipment are in the Deluxe EDGE System
Guide. This is a separate guide that will only be issued to designated staff. The Deluxe EDGE System Guide provides instructions on:
· Initial Log On
· Daily Log On/Off
· Screen Navigation
· Screen Functions
· Performing Searches
· Additional screens and Who Uses
· Card Issuance/Replacement
· Pin Reset
· How to Use the Data Card Embosser
· Field Explanations
· Issuing Immediate/Expedited Benefits
Staff with access may contact the San Diego Customer Service number 1-800-634-7435 ext. 3191 if they need assistance with using the EDGE/EBT system. This number is for county staff only and is not to
be given to recipients